The PREPARE Curriculum is an extension of ART and contains, in addition to the three basic components of ART, an additional seven courses. PREPARE teaches a wide range of social skills to children and young people. The goal is to reduce aggression, stress and prejudice through the influence of emotions, thoughts and actions. A variety of exercises follow each chapter of the book that enhance the value of the courses.

Although Goldstein argued that social problem solving is the portal method in PREPARE, the courses do not have to be followed in any particular order. It is the students’ needs that should govern the sequence and combinations of courses. PREPARE has a wide range of applications and can be used both preventively and in direct treatment.

The author of the programme, Arnold P. Goldstein, is no longer with us, but he left behind a wealth of material that we can manage and draw from. Goldstein’s wish was that this knowledge would be used primarily for preventive purposes. He nurtured a vision of a peaceful world free from unhealthy aggressiveness.

The ten courses included in the programme are chosen based on the empirical literature. Goldstein’s hope was that the PREPARE courses would be developed and expanded in line with new findings and experiences.

Overt Behaviour Skillstreaming
(Social Skills Training)
Situational (Social)
Perception Training
Supportive Models
Cooperation Training
Anger Control Training Stress Management Empathy Training
Cognition Moral Reasoning
Problem-Solving Training Understanding and Using Groups

Curriculum expansion

Goldstein’s hope was that the Prepare courses would always be in a transitional phase and would
always be in a state of development and expansion. Goldstein’s position was that no intervention
will ever be completely complete.

For future development, Goldstein suggests, for example, parenting training, training in family
and marital relationships, leadership training, skills for surviving on the street, dealing with
authority, job finding skills. Currently, further development has provided the following

  • Social Perception Training
  • Family TIES
  • AART
  • TAME
  • aaART

Stress Management Training

In his PREPARE Curriculum chapter, Dr Goldstein points out the stresses of childhood and adolescence are many and varied. Not only may the same stressful event have an impact with different potency depending upon the age of the youngster, but youth of different ages differ substantially in the events they perceive as stressful. The responses of the preadolescent tend to centre on the physical properties of the situation, external bodily consequences, and possible external sanctions. Older teenagers, by contrast, experience much more psychological consequences as the basis for anxiety in situations like anticipated shame, guilt, separation, or loss of personal integrity.

To help reduce stress, Dr Goldstein includes the following training tools. Progressive Relaxation Training, Yogaform Stretching, Breathing Exercises, Physical Exercise, Somatic Focusing, Thematic Imagery, and Meditation.

This chapter concludes with suggested applications for children and adolescents and Supplementary exercises.

Recruiting Supportive Models

This PREPARE Curriculum chapter discusses the importance of significant others in a youth’s life.

Dr Goldstein summarizes this perspective when he quotes Gordon and Song (1994): “it would appear that autonomous individual effort, although important, may not be sufficient to overcome the odds without support of a significant other. The experience of accountability to, or identification with, another person is viewed as a universal factor in human development. For persons at high risk of failure, it may well be necessary.”

This chapter provides ways for youth to identify supportive models, how to build relationships through specific skills use, and how to maintain these relationships.

This chapter stimulated the creation of the Family TIES program

Cooperation Training

Cooperation Training is included in the PREPARE Curriculum as a support for the other trainings.

As Dr Goldstein states: Games and sports in highly completive Western societies are typically anything but cooperative. However, cooperative games and cooperative versions of traditional sports do exist, are enjoyed, and can channel behavior in prosocial directions.

This chapter, therefore, examines Cooperative Learning and Cooperative gaming as promising routes towards more prosocial interactions.

Understanding and Using Groups

Dr Goldstein felt it was vital that a course sequence on groups be included in the PREPARE Curriculum.

Group processes are an exceedingly important influence upon the daily lives of many adolescents and young children. Groups shape much of what youngsters think, feel, do hope, and avoid.

This chapter draws on a variety of contemporary sources to not only heighten trainers’ understanding of groups. The additional purpose is to provide materials for planning lectures to introduce trainees to group activities, games, and supplementary activities. There is also the hope that the trainer will pursue additional readings to provide a basis for more prescriptive activities tailored to the group setting.

PREPARE Curriculum Delivery

This chapter discusses the importance of how the 10 training programs are taught and supported. To be considered are Intervention Integrity, Teacher Qualities, Alternative Schools, Increasing Trainee Motivation, Reducing Trainee Resistance, Minimizing negative Behaviors, and Behavior
Modification Techniques.

The chapter concludes with two essential topics: Generalization of gain and Curriculum Expansion.

Programs in short

PREPSEC International is concerned with establishing training and implementation standards for the different programs. Like Goldstein`s recommendation PREPSEC does not wish to limit the use of the program through licenses, but in order to secure proper dissemination and training standards the organization will recommend that the implementation recommendations are followed.

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Skillstreaming is an evidence-based strategy designed to systematically teach social skills to address the needs of children and youth who display aggression, immaturity, withdrawal and other problem behaviour. Developed by Dr. Arnold P. Goldstein and Dr. Ellen McGinnis, the Skillstreaming program provides resources to address these social skills needs.

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As part of a companion guide to Arnold Goldstein’s (1999) The PREPARE Series  (Revised Edition), this Moral Reasoning Training Manual provides updated advice and supplementary materials for facilitating the moral reasoning (or more generally, moral judgment) of behaviorally at-risk students.

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Anger is a natural recurring human emotion that we all experience, some more intense than others. For many of us the outlet or resolution for our anger lies in something other than aggression.

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The Importance of Empathy and Emotional Intelligence to Social Competence Training. We know now that training our youth in empathy will have a dramatic effect on their future behavior.  There have been studies in the United States dating back to the 1970’s showing the power or empathy in creating the process of growth and change in others.

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Problem-solving ability is an immensely important set of skills that assist adolescents to deal effectively with the navigation of stressful situations that they face daily. The conflict, confusion and difficult choices adolescents are up against, create additional stress. To have in place a useful strategy for dealing with this ongoing conflict is essential for problem resolution.

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The ability of social perception is one of the most important factors within the concept of social competence. Goldstein (Goldstein, 2004) argued that the ability to recognize, understand and interpret interpersonal cues is a key skill of social performance and thus should be emphasized in a separate program.

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A.M.E. Protocol • Intake and screening of youth referred for TAME: Treatment readiness is examined; assessments conducted; introduction of TAME components, including self-monitoring tool known as the “hassle log.”

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The model includes training elements from social skills or Skillstreaming, Anger Control Training, Empathy Training, Problem Solving, Moral Reasoning, Character Education, Situational or Social Perception Training and Stress Management Training.

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The primary purpose of this researched based model is to provide all youth a comprehensive program in social emotional learning. Social Emotional Learning allows for youth to acquire and effectively use techniques and tools to handle stressful situations, their emotions, other’s emotions, in a positive way. The “We Teach Peace” program not only has established detailed lesson plans for all grades and needs, but also helps organizations plan, design, implement and evaluate the best curriculum for the clients they serve.

For contact with Master Trainers visit or email:

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AART (Adapted ART) is a Scandinavian update of ART. Arnold Goldstein’s wish was that ART would continue to develop based on practice and research, and a lot has happened since ART was introduced.

AART involves a cultural adaptation and additions of both a theoretical and pedagogical nature. AART is a way to capture the developments that have taken place in CBT, ART, and related areas such as MI.

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Among the adaptations or advancements or aaART is the method of training. Trainees spend the time they need to assimilate the theoretical tenets of Anger Control Training, Skillstreaming and Moral Reasoning.

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